چهارشنبه, مهر 6, 1401

NEDAYE HORMOZGAN ONLINE
The online newspaper version of the Iranian

ورود/عضویت

قهرمانان پنهان نجات‌دهنده طبیعت!

پژوهشگران آمریکایی در بررسی جدید خود دریافته‌اند که برخی از گونه‌های گیاه یا حشرات می‌توانند نقش مهمی در مقابله با عواقب تغییرات اقلیمی داشته باشند و طبیعت را نجات دهند.

به گزارش همشهری آنلاین، ایسنا به نقل از وب‌سایت رسمی دانشگاه کلرادو بولدر، پژوهش جدید «دانشگاه کلرادو بولدر» آمریکا نشان می‌دهد که یک مگس خانگی، بومادران زردرنگ و سایر گیاهان، نقش مهمی در حفظ تنوع زیستی ایفا می‌کنند و همچنین ممکن است مانعی در برابر تاثیرات ناشی از تغییرات اقلیمی باشند.

یافته‌های این پژوهش، بینش‌های ارزشمندی را برای اولویت‌بندی حفاظت از گونه‌هایی که به قدرت جوامع زیستی کمک می‌کنند، ارائه می‌دهد.

«جولیان رساسکو»، پژوهشگر ارشد این پروژه گفت: بسیاری از اوقات، تلاش‌هایی برای محافظت از گونه‌های نادر صورت می‌گیرند اما گونه‌های متداول نیز بیشتر مواقع رو به نابودی هستند و در معرض انقراض قرار دارند. این موضوع می‌تواند عواقب بسیاری برای حفظ تنوع زیستی به همراه داشته باشد.

گونه‌هایی که با عنوان «Generalist» شناخته می‌شوند، با بسیاری از گونه‌های دیگر در تعامل قرار دارند. برای نمونه می‌توان به یک زنبور عسل اشاره کرد که از گونه‌های متفاوت گل بازدید می‌کند یا بالعکس، گلی که مورد بازدید بسیاری از گونه‌های زنبور عسل قرار می‌گیرد.

خرزنبوریان، از گونه‌های شناخته شده generalist هستند که سال‌ها مورد تحسین قرار داشته‌اند اما قهرمانان دیگری نیز در این میان وجود دارند که اغلب با بی‌احترامی از آنها یاد می‌شود. این قهرمانان، مگس‌ها هستند. به گفته رساسکو، برخی از مگس‌ها، متداول‌ترین بازدیدکنندگان گل‌ها هستند و از گل‌های متفاوتی بازدید می‌کنند.

گیاه بومادران که ساکنان کلرادو ممکن است آنها را بشناسند، گونه‌هایی هستند که علاقمندان به گل‌های وحشی، در تابستان به دنبال آنها می‌گردند و شاید زیاد معروف نباشند اما این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد که بومادران، نقش مهمی در پایداری اکولوژیکی مرغزارهای محل رشد خود بر عهده دارند.

مدت‌هاست که متخصصان بوم‌شناسی، تعامل میان گیاهان و این گونه‌ها را مورد بررسی قرار داده‌اند. بررسی‌های پیشین پژوهشگران نشان می‌دهد که گونه‌های generalist بارها در نواحی متفاوت و در فصول گرم سال یا طی چندین سال یافت می‌شوند. آنچه این پژوهش نشان می‌دهد، این است که این موجودات طی سالیان متمادی می‌توانند پایدار بمانند و نجات‌دهنده جوامع خود باشند.

رساسکو گفت: از آنجا که بسیاری از گونه‌ها بر این موجودات تکیه دارند، داشتن یک جمعیت سالم از آنها، به حفاظت از گیاهان و گونه‌هایی که کمتر در معرض انقراض محلی قرار دارند، کمک می‌کنند. ممکن است که این پایداری، برای محافظت در برابر افزایش تغییرات نابرابر ناشی از شرایط اقلیمی نیز موثر باشد.

این پژوهش، در مجله Ecology به چاپ رسید.

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